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THIS MONTH IN HISTORY
March

515 BC, March 12
Construction was completed on the second on Temple Mount in Jerusalem.

322 BC, March 7
Died: Aristotle, philosopher.

241 BC, March 10
First Punic War: The Battle of Aegusa -- The Roman fleet sinks 50 Carthaginian ships.

45 BC, March 17
In his last military victory, Julius Caesar defeated the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger in the Battle of Munda.

44 BC, March 15
Ides of March: -- Julius Caesar, General of the Roman Republic, was assassinated by a group of Roman senators including Marcus Junius Brutus, Decimus Janius Brutus, Cassius (Gaius Cassius Longinus) and Gaius Trebonius.

43 BC, March 20
Publius Ovidius Naso, the Roman poet known in the English speaking world as Ovid, was born. (Died in 17 AD.)

37 AD, March 18
The Roman Senate annulled Tiberius' will and proclaimed Caligula emperor.

161, March 7
Died: Antoninus Pius, was Roman emperor.

189, March 7
Born: Publius Septimius Geta; became Roman emperor.

286, March 1
Maximian proclaimed junior Roman emperor.

293, March 1
Constantius Chlorus and Galerius proclaimed junior Roman emperors.

461, March 17
Died: St. Patrick, at Saul, Downpatrick, Ireland.

483, March 13
St. Felix became Pope.

708, March 25
Constantine is consecrated Pope.

845, March 28
Paris is sacked by Viking raiders, probably led by Ragnar Lodbrok. The invaders collect a huge ransom to leave.

874, March 13
The bones of Saint Nicephorus are interred in the Church of the Apostles, Constantinople.

986, March 2
Louis V becomes King of the Franks.

1138, March 13
Cardinal Gregory is elected anti-pope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II.

1190, March 16
Crusaders start to massacre the Jews of York, England.

1193, March 4
Saladin, the Muslim warrior who opposed the Crusades, died.

1229, March 18
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor declares himself King of Jerusalem during the Sixth Crusade.

1413, March 20
Henry IV, Bolingbroke dies; Henry V becomes King of England.

1451, March 9
Born: Amerigo Vespucci, voyager / cartographer. (See Naming of America.)

1461, March 29
Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton -- Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King Edward IV of England.

1492, March 30
Ferdinand and Isabella sign a decree aimed at expelling all Jews from Spain unless they convert to Roman Catholicism.

1493, March 15
Christopher Columbus returns to Spain after his first trip to the Americas.

1496, March 10
Christopher Columbus leaves Hispaniola for Spain, ending his second visit to the Western Hemisphere.

1512, March 27
Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon sighted Florida.

1521, March 6, 16
-- Mar. 6: Ferdinand Magellan discovered Guam.
-- Mar. 16: Ferdinand Magellan reached the Philippines.

1562, March 1
Over 1,000 Huguenots are massacred by Catholics in Vassy, France marking the start of the First War of Religion.

1602, March 20
The Dutch East India Company is established.

1603, March 24
James I becomes King of England.

1621, March 16
Samoset, a Mohegan Indian, visited the settlers of Plymouth Colony and greeted them in English with, "Welcome, Englishmen! My name is Samoset."

1625, March 27
Charles I ascended the English throne upon the death of James I.

1629, March 10
Charles I of England dissolves Parliament starting the "Eleven Years Tyranny" in which there was no parliament.

1634, March 25
Maryland was founded by English colonists sent by the second Lord Baltimore.

1638, March 29
Swedish colonists arrive in present-day Delaware and call the new settlement, New Sweden.

1639, March 13
Harvard College (later, Harvard University) is named for clergyman John Harvard.

1642, March 1
Georgeana, Massachusetts (now known as York, Maine) becomes the first incorporated city in America.

1655, March 25
Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens.

1661, March 9
Cardinal Jules Mazarin, the chief minister of France, died, leaving King Louis XIV in full control.

1664, March 12
New Jersey became a British colony as King Charles II granted land in the New World to his brother James, Duke of York.

1672, March 15
Charles II of England issues the Royal Declaration of Indulgence.

1687, March 19
While searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River, explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle is murdered by his men.

1692, March 1
The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of four women with witchcraft.

1700, March 1
Sweden introduces its own Swedish calendar, in an attempt to reform into the Gregorian calendar.

1702, March 8
Anne becomes Queen of Great Britain.

1702, March 11
The 1st regular English language newspaper, The Daily Courant, is published in Hartford, Conn.

1712, March 1
Sweden reverts to the Julian calendar as March 1 follows on February 30.

1727, March 20
Physicist, mathematician and astronomer Sir Isaac Newton died in London.

1751, March 16
James Madison, 4th U.S. president, was born in Port Conway, Virginia.

1753, March 1
Sweden switched to the Gregorian Calendar, skipping 11 days so that March 1 followed February 17. (Feb. 18-28 are lost to Sweden forever.)

1756, March 17
New York City first celebrates St. Patrick's Day (at the Crown and Thistle Tavern).

1757, March 14
On board the HMS Monarch Admiral John Byng is executed by firing squad for neglecting his duty.

1760, March 20
The "Great Fire" of Boston destroyed 349 buildings.

1765, March 22
Britain enacted the Stamp Act to raise money from American colonies.

1765, March 24
Britain enacted the Quartering Act, (the first one) requiring American colonists to provide temporary housing to British soldiers.

1766, March 18
Britain repealed the Stamp Act which had been very unpopular in the colonies of America.

1767, March 15
The 7th president of the U.S., Andrew Jackson, was born in Waxhaw, S.C.

1770, March 5
The Boston Massacre: 5 Americans were killed by British troops in an event that helped spark the Revolutionary War 5 years later.

1775, March 23
Patrick Henry made his famous call for American independence by telling the Virginia Provincial Convention, "Give me liberty, or give me death!"

1776, March 17
American Revolution: British forces evacuated Boston after George Washington placed artillery overlooking the city.

1781, March 1
The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation.

1781, March 13
The planet Uranus was discovered by Sir William Herschel.

1781, March 15
American Revolutionary War: -- Battle of Guilford Courthouse (near present-day Greensboro, North Carolina), 1,900 British troops under General Charles Cornwallis defeated an American force of 4,400 commanded by Gen. Nathanael Greene but the battle severely weakened the British forces and Cornwallis was not able to recover before his surrender at Yorktown in October.

1782, March 8
The Gnadenhutten massacre took place as some 90/96 Indians were slain by militiamen in Ohio in retaliation for raids carried out by other Indians.

1785, March 10
Thomas Jefferson was appointed minister to France, succeeding Benjamin Franklin.

1788, March 21
A fire destroys 856 buildings in New Orleans leaving most of the town in ruins.

1789, March 4
The U.S. Constitution went into effect as the first Federal Congress met in New York. The lawmakers immediately adjourned for lack of a quorum.

1790, March 1
The first U.S. census is taken in accordance with the new Constitution (Article I, Sec. 2, 3rd Cl.).

1790, March 29
The 10th president, John Tyler, was born in Charles City County, Virginia.

1791, March 3
Congress authorized the U.S. Mint: The first facility at Philadelphia was established under the Coinage Act on April 2, 1792.

1791, March 4
Vermont became the 14th state.

1793, March 4
1st President George Washington was inaugurated for his second term. [March 4 remained the inauguration date through F.D. Roosevelt's 1st term in 1933. Amendment XX changed the date to January 20 beginning in 1937.]

1794, March 14
Eli Whitney was granted a patent for the cotton gin.

1794, March 27
President Washington and Congress authorized creation of the U.S. Navy.

1796, March 9
The future emperor of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, married Josephine de Beauharnais. (He divorced her in 1810 because she failed to bear him a son.)

1802, March 16
West Point is established as a United States Military Academy.

1802, March 25
The Treaty of Amiens is signed as a "Definitive Treaty of Peace" between France and Great Britain.

1803, March 1
Ohio becomes the 17th U.S. state.

1804, March 10
Louisiana Purchase: In St. Louis, a formal ceremony is conducted to transfer the Louisiana Territory from France to the United States.

1804, March 21
Napoleonic code adopted as French civil law.

1806, March 23
After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Lewis and Clark and their "Corps of Discovery" begin their arduous journey home.

1806, March 29
The first federal highway, The Cumberland Road, is authorized.

1807, March 2
Taking advantage of the earliest possible opportunity under the "slavery compromise" of the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Sec. 9, Cl. 1), Congress passed an act to "prohibit the importation of slaves into any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States."

1807, March 25
The Slave Trade Act becomes law abolishing slavery in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. (See also, Slavery and Servitude)

1810, March 11
After divorcing Josephine de Beauharnais, Emperor Napoleon of France is married by proxy to Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.

1811, March 1
Leaders of the Mameluke dynasty are killed by Egyptian ruler Mohammed Ali.

1811, March 20
Born: Napoleon II, son of Napoleon I and Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.

1814, March 10
Napoleon I is defeated at the Battle of Laon in France.

1815, March 1, 20
-- Mar. 1: Napoleon returns to France from his banishment on Elba.
-- Mar 20: Napoleon enters Paris, with an army of 140,000 and a volunteer force of 200,000: begins his "Hundred Days" of rule.

1818, March 11
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is first published.

1820, March 3
Congress passed the Missouri Compromise.

1820, March 6
For the second time, President James Monore signed the Missouri Compromise. (The Compromise allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state but made the territory north of Missouri slave free.)

1820, March 15
Maine became the 23rd state of the United States.

1820, March 22
U.S. naval hero Stephen Decatur was killed in a duel with Commodore James Barron near Washington, D.C.

1821, March 5
U.S. President James Monroe was inaugurated for a second term.

1821, March 25
Greece declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire, beginning the Greek War of Independence.

1822, March 30
Florida was established as a U.S. territory.

1827, March 26
Composer Ludwig van Beethoven died in Vienna.

1831, March 19
City Bank of New York is the site of the first bank robbery in the U.S. as $245,000 is taken.

1832, March 24
In Hiram, Ohio a group of men beat, tar and feather Mormon leader Joseph Smith.

1834, March 6
The city of York in "Upper Canada" was incorporated as Toronto.

1836, March 2
Declaration of independence: Texas from Mexico.

1836, March 5
Samuel Colt makes the first production model of the .34-caliber pistol.

1836, March 6
The Alamo: In San Antonio, Texas, after a 13-day siege by an army of 3,000 Mexican troops led by Antonio López de Santa Anna, 189 volunteer defenders were defeated and the fort taken.

1836, March 27
The first Mormon temple is dedicated in Kirtland, Ohio.

1837, March 4
The state of Illinois granted a city charter for Chicago.

1837, March 18
The 22nd president of the U.S., Grover Cleveland, was born in Caldwell, N.J. Cleveland was re-elected as the 24th president following the 23rd president, Benjamin Harrison. (Cleveland is the only president to serve split terms.)

1839, March 23
First recorded use of "OK" (oll korrect): Boston Morning Post.

1841, March 8
U.S.S.C. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., the "Great Dissenter," was born.

1841, March 9
The U.S.S.C. ruled in the Amistad case that the Africans on board had been captured illegally for slavery and were justified in seizing control of the ship.

1842, March 30
Anesthesia was used in surgery for the first time when Dr. Crawford W. Long of Jefferson, Georgia used ether during a minor operation.

1845, March 1
President John Tyler signs a bill authorizing the U.S. to annex Texas.

1845, March 3
-- Florida became the 27th state.
-- For the first time, Congress passed legislation over a presidential veto.

1847, March 29
Mexican-American War: Victorious forces led by Gen. Winfield Scott occupied the city of Vera Cruz after Mexican defenders surrendered.

1848, March 10
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is ratified by the U.S. Senate, ending the Mexican-American War.

1848, March 29
An upstream ice jam stops almost all water flow over Niagara Falls.

1849, March 3
-- The U.S. Department of the Interior was established.
-- Congress created the Minnesota Territory.
-- Congress passed the Gold Coinage Act, permitting the minting of gold coins.

1849, March 5
Zachary Taylor was inaugurated as the 12th U.S. President.

1852, March 20
Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin was first published.

1854, March 8
U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry made his second landing in Japan; within a month, he concluded a treaty with the Japanese: Convention of Kanagawa.

1854, March 28
Crimean War: The U.K. and France declare war on Russia.

1855, March 2
Alexander II becomes Tsar of Russia.

1856, March 30
The Treaty of Paris (1856) is signed ending the Crimean War.

1857, March 3
France and the U.K. declare war on China.

1857, March 6
The Dred Scott Case: The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Scott, a slave, could not sue for his freedom in federal court.

1857, March 23
Elisha Otis' first elevator is installed at 488 Broadway, NYC.

1858, March 30
Hyman Lipman patents a pencil with an attached eraser.

1860, March 9
The first Japanese ambassador to the United States, Niimi Buzennokami, and his staff arrived in San Francisco.

1861, March 2
Nevada and Dakota Territories are organized as U.S. political entities.

1861, March 4
Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as the 16th President.

1861, March 11
The Confederate convention in Montgomery, Ala., adopted a constitution.

1861, March 17
The Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed with today's national boundaries.

1862, March 9
During the Civil War, the ironclads Monitor and Virginia (formerly Merrimac) clashed for five hours to a draw at Hampton Roads, Virginia.

1862, March 26-28
Civil War: The Battle of Glorieta Pass New Mexico is won by Union forces.

1863, March 3
The Idaho Territory was organized as a political entity of the U.S.

1864, March 1
Rebecca Lee (Crumpler) became the first black woman to receive an American medical degree, from the New England Female Medical College in Boston.

1864, March 10
Ulysses S. Grant became commander of the Union armies in the Civil War.

1865, March 3
Formation of the Freedmen's Bureau was authorized by Congress.

1865, March 19
American Civil War: The Battle of Bentonville begins. By the end of the battle on the 21st the Confederates had retreated from Greenville, N.C. toward Raleigh.

1865, March 29
American Civil War: The Battle of Appomattox Court House began.

1867, March 1
Nebraska became the 37th U.S. state.

1867, March 29
The British Parliament passed the North American Act to create the Dominion of Canada (went into effect on July 1).

1867, March 30
Alaska was acquired by the U.S. from Russia for $7.2 million (.02 per acre). The purchase was negotiated by Secretary of State William H. Seward, prompting the enlightened news media to ridicule the deal as "Seward's Folly."

1868, March 5
The Senate was organized into a Court of Impeachment to decide charges against President Andrew Johnson. (Conviction failed by one vote. The charges were brought because of anti-South sentiment following the Civil War.)

1869, March 14
The end of Titokowaru's War in the North island region of New Zealand.

1870, March 30
-- The 15th Amendment to the Constitution was declared in effect, giving black men the right to vote.
-- Texas was readmitted to the Union.

1872, March 1
Yellowstone National Park was established as the world's first national park.

1872, March 5
George Westinghouse patents the air brake.

1873, March 1
E. Remington and Sons in Ilion, New York, start production of the first practical typewriter.

1873, March 3
The U.S. Congress enacts the Comstock Law, making it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, or lascivious" books through the mail. [The article in the link at Wikipedia is a clear example of people who love pornography and wonder why the American tax payers don't like to subsidize their "obscene, lewd, and lascivious" printed materials. (The U.S. Postal Service is dependent on vast infusions of cash from the U.S. Treasury each year.)]

1874, March 8
The 13th President of the U.S., Millard Fillmore, died in Buffalo, N.Y.

1874, March 26
Poet Robert Frost was born in San Francisco.

1876, March 7, 10
-- Mar. 7: Alexander Graham Bell is granted patent # 174,464 for the gadget he called the telephone.
-- Mar. 10: The first successful voice transmission over the telephone took place in Boston when his assistant in the next room heard Bell say, "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you."

1877, March 2
-- The U.S. Congress declared Rutherford B. Hayes the winner of the Nov. 7, 1876, Presidential election over Samuel J. Tilden. [Historians always write this factoid another way. They add, "even though Tilden won the popular vote." -- Of course, such an ending is asinine, ridiculous, silly, out of place, etc., etc. The winner of the popular vote has nothing to do with presidential elections in the U.S. Since the first election of 1789, presidents have been elected by ELECTORAL votes! That's what the Constitution calls for!]
-- Reconstruction ends.

1877, March 5
Rutherford B. Hayes was publicly inaugurated as the 19th President. (He had been privately inaugurated on Mar. 3).

1879, March 3
-- Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood became the first woman to be admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.
-- The United States Geological Survey is created.

1879, March 14
Born: Albert Einstein, physicist.

1880, March 10
Members of the Salvation Army arrive in the U.S. and begin operations.

1882, March 24
German scientist Robert Koch announced in Berlin that he had discovered the bacillus responsible for tuberculosis.

1883, March 24
Long distance telephone service began between Chicago and New York.

1884, March 13
Standard Time was adopted throughout the United States.

1885, March 3
The American Telephone and Telegraph Company is incorporated in New York State as a subsidiary of American Bell Telephone. (American Bell would later merge with its subsidiary.)

1886, March 17
The Carrollton Massacre: 20 African-Americans are murdered in Mississippi.

1888, March 11
The famous "Blizzard of '88" struck the northeastern U.S., resulting in some 400 deaths.

1889, March 31
French engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel unfurled the French tricolor from atop the Eiffel Tower, officially marking its completion.

1891, March 17
The British steamship, SS Utopia sinks off the coast of Gibraltar, killing 574.

1892, March 26
Poet Walt Whitman died in Camden, New Jersey.

1894, March 12
Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time.

1895, March 22
Auguste and Louis Lumiere showed their first movie to an invited audience in Paris.

1896, March 1
Battle of Adowa, in which Ethiopia defended its independence against Italy, begins. The Italians were defeated.

1898, March 24
Robert Allison of Port Carbon, Pennsylvania becomes the first person to buy an American-built automobile when he buys a Winton automobile that was advertised in Scientific American.

1899, March 2
Mount Rainier National Park is established in Washington state.

1899, March 6
Bayer registers "aspirin" as a trademark.

1901, March 13
Died: The 23rd president of the U.S., Benjamin Harrison, in Indianapolis.

1902, March 4
The American Automobile Association (AAA) was founded in Chicago.

1904, March 1
Born: Bandleader Glenn Miller, in Clarinda, Iowa.

1905, March 5
Russian troops begin to retreat from Mukden, Manchuria after losing more than 100,000 troops in three days.

1905, March 17
Franklin D. Roosevelt and Anna Eleanor Roosevelt were married in New York.

1906, March 13
American suffragist Susan B. Anthony died in Rochester, N.Y.

1906, March 15
Rolls-Royce, LTD., is founded by Henry Royce and C.S. Rolls.

1906, March 31
The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the U.S. (IAAUS) is established to set rules for amateur sports. In 1910, the IAAUS became the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

1912, March 1
The first parachute jump from a moving airplane, is made by Albert Berry.

1912, March 7
Roald Amundsen announces the discovery of the South Pole.

1913, March 10
Died: Harriet Tubman, anti-slavery activist, and Underground Railroad conductor.

1913, March 12
Canberra became the capital of Australia.

1913, March 25
The home of vaudeville, the Palace Theatre, opened in New York City.

1914, March 13
Born: Edward Henry "Butch" O'Hare, winner of the CMoH as a Navy flier in WW II. (O'Hare Airport in Chicago is named for him).

1915, March 16
The Federal Trade Commission was organized.

1915, March 19
The planet(oid) Pluto is photographed for the first time but is not recognized as a planet (or planetoid).

1916, March 9, 15, 19
-- Mar. 9: Pancho Villa leads 1,500 Mexican raiders in an attack on Columbus, New Mexico, killing 17 Americans.
-- Mar. 15: President Woodrow Wilson sends 12,000 troops over the Mexican border to pursue Pancho Villa.
-- Mar. 19: The first air combat mission in U.S. history is initiated as 8 American planes take off for Mexico in search of Pancho Villa.

1917, March 2
The enactment of the Jones Act grants U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans.

1917, March 8
-- Russia's "February Revolution" (Old Style calendar in use at the time) began with rioting and strikes in St. Petersburg.
-- The U.S. Senate voted to limit filibusters by adopting the cloture rule.

1917, March 11
Baghdad falls to the Anglo-Indian force commanded by General Maude.

1917, March 31
The U.S. took possession of the Virgin Islands from Denmark after paying $25 million. (Considering the Louisiana Purchase for $15 million and Alaska for $7.2 million, the price of real estate is skyrocketing.)

1918, March 19, 31
Congress established U.S. time zones and approved Daylight Savings Time which went into effect for the first time on March 31st.

1919, March 15
The American Legion was founded in Paris.

1920, March 19
The U.S. Senate rejects the Treaty of Versailles for the second time (first rejected Nov. 19, 1919).

1923, March 2
Time Magazine hits newsstands for the first time.

1925, March 4
President Calvin Coolidge's inauguration was broadcast live on 21 radio stations coast-to-coast; a first for radio broadcast of inaugurations.

1926, March 16
Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket, at Auburn, Mass.

1928, March 12
In California, the St. Francis Dam failed, killing 400.

1930, March 8
The 27th President and later Chief Justice of the U.S.S.C., William Howard Taft, died in Washington, D.C. He was buried Mar. 11, in Arlington National Cemetery.

1930, March 12
In India, Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) began a 200-mile march to protest a British tax on salt.

1930, March 28
Constantinople and Angora change their names to Istanbul and Ankara.

1931, March 1
Henry Pu Yi, former Emperor of China, is proclaimed King of the puppet state of Manchukuo by Japan.

1931, March 3
"The Star-Spangled Banner" officially became the national anthem of the U.S.

1931, March (17 or 19?)
Nevada legalized gambling.

1932, March 1
20-month-old Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., son of Charles A. Lindbergh, was kidnapped from the family home near Hopewell, N.J. (The childs remains were found the following May).

1933, March 2
The movie King Kong premieres in New York City.

1933, March 4
Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated president, pledging to lead the country out of the Great Depression. (The administration brought with it the first woman to serve in the Cabinet: Labor Secretary Frances Perkins.)

1933, March 5
In German parliamentary elections, the Nazi Party won 44 percent of the vote, enabling it to join with the Nationalists to gain a slender majority in the Reichtag. (The rest, they say, is history.)

1933, March 9
Congress, called into special session by President Franklin Roosevelt, began its "hundred days" of enacting New Deal legislation.

1933, March 23
The German Reichstag adopted the Enabling Act, which effectively granted Adolf Hitler dictatorial legislative powers.

1933, March 31
Congress authorized the Civilian Conservation Corps.

1934, March 24
President Franklin Roosevelt signed a bill granting future independence to the Philippines.

1935, March 6
Died: Retired Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., in Washington.

1935, March 16
Adolf Hitler orders Germany to re-arm, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.

1935, March 21
Persia is renamed Iran.

1936, March 1
Hoover Dam is completed.

1936, March 7
In violation of the Locarno Pact and the Treaty of Versailles to settle World War I, Germany reoccupies the Rhineland.

1937, March 18
More than 400 people, mostly children, were killed in a gas explosion at a school in New London, Texas. [Source: The Associated Press]

1938, March 12
The "Anschluss" took place as German troops entered Austria.

1939, March 2, 12
-- Mar. 2: Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Eugenio Pacelli became Pope as Pius XII.
-- Mar. 12: Pope Pius XII was formally crowned in ceremonies at the Vatican.

1939, March 28
Generalissimo Francisco Franco conquers Madrid, bringing an end to the Spanish Civil War.

1940, March 18
Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini met at the Brenner Pass, where the Italian dictator agreed to join Germany's war against France and Britain.

1941, March 1
World War II: Bulgaria signs the Tripartite Pact thus joining the Axis powers.

1941, March 11
President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the Lend-Lease Bill, providing war supplies to countries fighting the Axis.

1941, March 17
The National Gallery of Art was officially opened by President Roosevelt in Washington, D.C.

1942, March 8
In World War II, Japanese forces captured Rangoon, Burma.

1942, March 11
Under direct orders from President Roosevelt, General Douglas MacArthur abandoned Corregidor and left the Philippines for Australia, vowing: "I shall return." (Three years later he did return and saw hand-scrawled signs along the roads: "With the help of God and a few Marines, MacArthur retook the Philippines").

1942, March 17
General Douglas MacArthur arrived in Australia to become the supreme commander of Allied forces in the southwest Pacific theater during World War II.

1942, March 23
During World War II, the U.S. government began evacuating Japanese-Americans from their West Coast homes to detention centers.

1943, March 2
World War II: Battle of the Bismarck Sea -- U.S. and Australian forces sink Japanese convoy ships.

1943, March 3
World War II: In London, 173 people are killed in a crush while trying to enter an air-raid shelter at Bethnal Green tube station.

1943, March 29
World War II: Meat, butter and cheese rationing began.

1944, March 6
World War II: U.S. heavy bombers staged the first American raid on Berlin.

1944, March 24
World War II: In occupied Rome, Nazis executed more than 300 civilians in reprisal for an attack by Italian partisans the day before that killed 32 German soldiers.

1945, March 1
-- President Roosevelt, back from the Yalta Conference, proclaimed the meeting a success as he addressed a joint session of Congress.
-- W47NV begins operations in Nashville, Tennessee becoming the first FM radio station.

1945, March 3
World War II: Hundreds of people die in The Hague after the Royal Air Force mistakenly bombs a civilian area in the city.

1945, March 7
World War II: American troops seize the bridge over the Rhine River at Remagen and begin to cross into Germany.

1945, March 9
World War II: U.S. B-29 bombers launched incendiary bomb attacks against Japan.

1945, March 16
World War II: The Battle of Iwo Jima ends but pockets of resistance persist.

1945, March 19
-- World War II: About 800 people were killed as kamikaze planes attacked the American carrier USS Franklin off Japan; the ship, however, was saved.
-- Adolf Hitler issued his "Nero Decree," ordering the destruction of German facilities that could fall into Allied hands.

1945, March 22
The Grand Coulee Dam in Washington state went into operation.

1945, March 29
World War II: Last day of V1 Flying Bombs on England.

1945, March 30
World War II: The Soviet Union invaded Austria.

1946, March 2
Ho Chi Minh became President of North Vietnam.

1946, March 5
Winston Churchill delivered his famous "Iron Curtain" speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri.

1947, March 1
The International Monetary Fund begins financial operations.

1947, March 12
President Harry Truman established what became known as the Truman Doctrine to help Greece and Turkey resist Communism.

1949, March 1
World heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis announced his retirement from boxing.

1949, March 2
The B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II lands in Fort Worth, Texas after completing the first non-stop around-the-world airplane flight.

1949, March 10
American citizen and Nazi wartime broadcaster Mildred E. Gillars, a.k.a. as "Axis Sally," was convicted in Washington, D.C. of treason. (She served 12 years in prison.)

1949, March 31
Newfoundland entered confederation as Canada's 10th province.

1950, March 1
Cold War: Klaus Fuchs is convicted of spying for the Soviet Union by giving them top-secret atomic bomb data.

1950, March 17
Researchers at UCLA-Berkeley announced the creation of synthetic chemical element 98 which they named "californium."

1951, March 6
The trial of American Cummunist Ethel and Julius Rosenberg begins in New York. They were charged with passing Atomic Bomb secrets to the Soviet Union and both were executed in 1953. [Politically Correct historians still maintain that the prosecution was overly aggressive notwithstanding the fact that in recent years Soviet records have verified that the Rosenbergs committed the crimes for which they were executed.]

1951, March 12
"Dennis the Menace," created by cartoonist Hank Ketcham, made its syndicated debut in 16 U.S. newspapers. Oddly, in this same week a different "Dennis the Menace" was introduced in the United Kingdom by another cartoonist.

1951, March 14
Korean War: For the second time, American forces capture Seoul.

1951, March 19
Herman Wouk's war novel "The Caine Mutiny" was published.

1951, March 30
Remington Rand delivers the first UNIVAC I computer to the U.S. Census Bureau.

1953, March 5
Soviet dictator Josef Stalin died at age 73 after 29 years in power.

1953, March 6
Georgy Maksimilianovich Malenkov succeeds Josef Stalin as Premier and First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1953, March 26
Jonas Salk announces his polio vaccine.

1954, March 1
-- Nuclear testing: Officials announce that an American hydrogen bomb test had been conducted on Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.
-- Puerto Rican nationalists attack the United States Capitol building, injuring five Representatives.

1954, March 25
RCA announced it had begun producing color television sets at its plant in Bloomington, Ind. (The sets, with 12 1/2-inch picture tubes, cost $1,000 each.)

1956, March 2
Morocco declared its independence from France.

1956, March 23
Pakistan became an independent republic (the first world's Islamic republic) within the British Commonwealth.

1957, March 6
The U.K. colonies of Gold Coast and Togoland become the independent Republic of Ghana.

1958, March 24
Elvis Presley was inducted into the Army in Memphis, Tenn.

1959, March 17
The Dalai Lama fled Tibet after China conquered his country. (China still occupies Tibet and the Dalai Lama remains in exile).

1959, March 18
President Eisenhower signed the Hawaii statehood bill (admitted Aug. 21, 1959).

1961, March 1
President John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps.

1961, March 29
The 23rd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, allowing citizens of Washington, D.C. to vote in presidential elections.

1962, March 1
Uganda becomes self-governing.

1962, March 2
In Hershey, Pennsylvania, Wilt Chamberlain of the Philadelphia 76ers scores 100 points against the New York Knicks, breaking several National Basketball Association records.

1963, March 5
Country music performers Patsy Cline, Cowboy Copas and Hawkshaw Hawkins died in a plane crash near Camden, Tennessee.

1964, March 9
The U.S. Supreme Court, in its N.Y. Times v. Sullivan decision, ruled that public officials who charged libel could not recover damages for defamatory statements related to their official duties unless they proved actual malice on the part of the news organization.

1964, March 14
A jury in Dallas, Texas finds Jack Ruby guilty of killing Lee Harvey Oswald, the assassin of President John Kennedy.

1965, March 7
In Selma, Alabama state troopers and local law enforcement breakup a group of 600 civil rights marchers. The event was dubbed "Bloody Sunday" (1965).

1965, March 8
The U.S. landed about 3,500 Marines in South Vietnam and President Lyndon Johnson pretended that they were the first American combat troops sent into the war.

1965, March 18
The first spacewalk took place as Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov left his Voskhod II capsule, secured by a tether.

1965, March 23
America's first two-person space flight began as Gemini III blasted off from Cape Kennedy with astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young aboard.

1966, March 1
-- Venera 3 Soviet space probe crashes on Venus becoming the first spacecraft to land on another planet's surface.
-- The Ba'ath Party takes power in Syria.

1966, March 15
The Alvin submarine found a missing American hydrogen bomb off the coast of Spain in the Mediterranean. (The bomb had been dropped accidently when a B-52 and its refueling tanker collided.)

1968, March 16
Vietnam War: Frustrated American troops led by Lt. William L. Calley Jr., lash out against villagers in the My Lai massacre.

1968, March 27
Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, the first man to orbit the earth, died in a plane crash.

1968, March 31
President Lyndon Johnson surprised the nation by announcing he would not seek another term.

1969, March 1
Major league baseballer Mickey Mantle announces his retirement.

1969, March 10
In Memphis, Tennessee, James Earl Ray pled guilty to the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Ray later withdrew his guilty plea.)

1969, March 13
The Apollo 9 astronauts splashed down, ending a mission that included the successful testing of the Lunar Module.

1969, March 17
Golda Meir of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, becomes Prime Minister of Israel.

1970, March 5
A nuclear nonproliferation treaty went into effect after ratification of 43 nations.

1971, March 26
East Pakistan proclaimed its independence, taking the name Bangladesh.

1971, March 29
Army Lt. William L. Calley Jr. was convicted of murdering at least 22 Vietnamese civilians in the "My Lai massacre."

1973, March 7
Comet Kohoutek is discovered.

1973, March 29
U.S. combat troops left S. Vietnam, ending America's military involvement in the Vietnam War. The abandonment left North Vietnam free to slaughter those in the South who had resisted. (They did that.... killing more than a million over the next two years.)

1974, March 1
Seven members of President Richard Nixon's administration were indicted for various crimes, including conspiracy to obstruct justice, in connection with their roles in the Watergate break-in scandal.

1974, March 3
Nearly 350 people died when a Turkish Airlines DC-10 crashed shortly after takeoff from Orly Airport in Paris.

1974, March 18
Most Arab oil-producing nations ended their five-month long embargo against the U.S. that had been put in place to drive gasoline prices up at the pump. The embargo caused a four-fold increase in prices but the price-per-gallon settled at about 70 cents, up from about 35 cents.

1976, March 24
The president of Argentina, Isabel Peron, was deposed by her country's military.

1977, March 9
A dozen armed Muslims (Hanafi) terrorist took over three buildings in Washington, D.C., killing one person and taking more than 130 hostages. The situation ended two days later and the CIA, the FBI, Congress, and the American public sank BACK into their usual deep slumber and said, ho hum.

1977, March 27
582 people were killed when a KLM Boeing 747, attempting to take off, crashed into a Pan Am 747 on the Canary Island of Tenerife.

1978, March 11
Palestinian terrorists on the Tel Aviv-Haifa highway kill 34 Israelis.

1978, March 16
Italian politician Aldo Moro was kidnapped by terrorist who later murdered him. (The world said, "ho-hum.")

1979, March 26
Another treaty in the Camp David Accords was signed by Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat at the White House.

1979, March 28
At the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Penn., a pump in the cooling system failed. Contaminated water evaporated into the atmosphere and some feared a melt-down of the reactor's core.

1980, March 18
In Russia, a Vostok rocket exploded on its launch pad during a fueling operation and killed nearly 50 people.

1981, March 30
As he left a speaking engagement at a Washington, D.C. hotel, President Ronald Reagan was shot in the chest by mental patient John Hinckley Jr.

1982, March 5
Comedian John Belushi was found dead of a drug overdose in a rented bungalow in Hollywood, Calif.; he was 33.

1982, March 26
Groundbreaking ceremonies took place in Washington, D.C. for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

1983, March 8
President Ronald Reagan called the Soviet Union an "Evil Empire," marking the beginning of a process that ended with the collapse of the communist state.

1983, March 23
President Ronald Reagan first proposed developing technology to intercept enemy missiles -- a proposal that became known as the Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as "Star Wars."

1984, March 16
CIA station chief stationed in Beirut, William Buckley, was kidnapped by Islamic fundamentalists and later died in captivity. (The U.S. ignored the atrocity and the world said, "ho-hum.")

1985, March 11
Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of the Soviet Union and began a process with President Ronald Reagan that changed the world.

1985, March 16
AP newsman Terry Anderson is taken hostage by terrorist in Beirut, Lebanon and held hostage until Dec. 4, 1991. (The world said, "ho-hum.")

1986, March 5
In Lebanon, Islamic Jihad terrorist issued a statement saying they had murdered French hostage Michel Seurat, who had been abducted almost a year earlier. [Obviously, today (in 2005) French President Jacques Chirac thinks such behavior is normal.]

1986, March 9
U.S. Navy divers find the largely intact but heavily-damaged crew compartment of the Space Shuttle Challenger (Mission 51L). The bodies of all seven astronauts were still inside.

1986, March 30
Actor James Cagney died at his farm in Stanfordville, N.Y., at age 86.

1988, March 16
Saddam Hussein orders an attack against the Kurds of Iraq using gas and nerve agents. More than 5,000 Kurds are killed.

1989, March 14
Gun Control: President George H.W. Bush signed a bill banning the importation of "assult rifles" into the U.S. although till this day no one has been able to define what a non-military assualt rifle IS.

1989, March 18
In Egypt, a 4,400 year-old mummy is found in the Pyramid of Cheops.

1989, March 23
A 1,000-foot diameter Near-Earth asteroid misses the Earth by 400,000 miles.

1989, March 24
Exxon Valdez oil spill: In Alaska's Prince William Sound the Exxon Valdez spills 240,000 barrels (11 million gallons) of oil after running aground.

1990, March 1
-- A fire at the Sheraton Hotel in Cairo kills 16.
-- Steve Jackson Games (computer games) is raided by the U.S. Secret Service, prompting the later formation of the EFF.

1990, March 11
Lithuania becomes independent from the Soviet Union.

1991, March 3
Provoking a national outcry, drug-head DUI motorist Rodney King was beaten with batons by Los Angeles police officers in a scene captured on amateur video. King had prompted a car chase after attempting to outrun the officers.

1991, March 31
The Warsaw Pact ceased to exist as a military alliance.

1992, March 1
After a majority of Muslim and Croatian communities vote for Bosnian independence, Bosnian Serb snipers fire on civilians.

1992, March 17
29 are killed and 242 injured when a suicide car-bomb explodes in the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires. (The world said, "ho-hum.")

1992, March 18
Microsoft begins shipping Windows 3.1.

1993, March 11
Janet Reno is confirmed and sworn in the next day as the first female U.S. Attorney General.

1993, March 12
North Korea announced that it planned to withdraw from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and would refuse to allow inspectors access to nuclear sites.

1993, March 16
The Blizzard of '93 kills 184 along the eastern coast of the U.S.

1994, March 4
In New York, four Arab Islamist terrorist were convicted of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing that killed six people and injured more than 1,000.

1994, March 7
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music that parodies of an original work are generally covered by the doctrine of fair use.

1995, March 5
An Australian yacht broke in two and sank in fierce winds off the Southern California coast, the first sinking in the history of America's Cup racing; all 17 crew members were rescued.

1995, March 20
In Tokyo, 12 people were killed and more than 5,500 others sickened when terrorist leaked the poisonous gas sarin on five subway trains.

1996, March 11
John Howard becomes the twenty-fifth Prime Minister of Australia.

1998, March 2
Data sent from the Galileo spaceprobe indicates that Jupiter's moon Europa has a liquid ocean under a thick crust of ice.

1999, March 1
-- One of four bombs detonated in Lusaka, Zambia, destroys the Angolan Embassy.
-- Hutu rebels kill eight tourists in Uganda.

1999, March 12
Former Warsaw Pact members, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland joined NATO.

2000, March 5
Israel's Cabinet voted unanimously to withdraw its troops from south Lebanon by the following July.

2002, March 1, 18
-- Mar. 1: U.S. invasion of Afghanistan: In eastern Afghanistan, Operation Anaconda begins.
-- Mar. 18: Operation Anaconda ends after killing 500 Taliban and al Qaeda fighters. Allied forces lost 11.

2003, March 19
President Bush ordered the start of war against Saddam Hussein's Iraq.

2005, March 3
In a first ever: Steve Fossett successfully flies an airplane around the world all alone without any stops and without refuelling -- a journey of 40,234 km/25,000 mi, completed in 67 hours and 2 minutes.


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