A Chronology of History
Events Which Influenced and Shaped the United States
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|1200 - 1399: Struggle For Power|
|1206||Genghis Khan becomes ruler of Mongolia.|
|1215||Genghis Khan conquers Beijing, China.|
|1215||Magna Carta, 1st version, sealed by King John (Lackland) at Runnymede|
but not incorporated into law until 1297.
|1216||King John, (Lackland) dies, 18 October. Succeeded by son Henry|
who becomes King Henry III
|1218||Genghis Khan sweeps through Central Asia, including the steppes of Russia.|
|1225||Magna Carta reissued for third time, in definitive form.|
|1227||Genghis Khan dies on August 18.|
|1237||Batu, grandson of Genghis Khan, leads Mongols into heartland of Russia.|
|1240||Kiev destroyed, placing Russia under the Mongol Empire.|
|1241||Ogotai, son of Genghis Khan, lays waste to much of Hungary and Poland.|
|1258||King Henry III, forced to submit to Provisions of Oxford|
|1264||Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, establishes his capital in Cambaluc (Beijing.)|
|1264||Civil War erupts in England led by Simon de Montfort.|
King Henry III is subdued, Montfort takes over government.
|1265||First English Parliament convenes January 20.|
|1265||King Henry III makes come back; de Montford is slain.|
|1271||17 year old Marco Polo and his father leave Venice for China.|
Arrive in Shangdu 3 years later.
|1272||King Henry III dies, succeeded by his son Edward I (Longshanks).|
|1278||Statute of Gloucester, enacted in England; gives crown better|
national control over feudal lords.
|1279||Kublai Khan completes conquest of China establishing|
Mongol Empire dynasty that ruled from 1279 until 1368.
|1282||Llywelyn ap Gruffydd of Wales dies; Wales is divided into shires.|
English civil law introduced.
|1295||Marco Polo and his father, return to Venice (with pasta from China)|
after a 24 year absence.
|1297||Magna Carta confirmed by Edward I, for first time enters English|
statute rolls as law.
|1297||William Wallace incites rebellion; defeats English army at Stirling.|
Edward defeats Wallace at Falkirk in 1298; executes him in 1304.
|1298||Marco Polo, completes his book - Description of the World. See excerpt.|
|~1300||The Renaissance began in Italy during the early 1300's and spread to England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and other countries in the late 1400's. The period ended about 1600.|
|1306||Robert Bruce instigates revolt; defeats Edward's army at Bannockburn.|
Edward mounts ruthless campaign in Scotland.
|1307||King Edward I dies; his oldest son accedes as King Edward II.|
|1314||Robert Bruce defeats Edward II's army at Bannockburn; gains|
independence for Scotland that lasts till 1707.
|1320||The Declaration of Arbroath. Scotland's formal declaration of|
independence from England.
|1326||King Edward II's wife, Queen Isabella, betrays him for Roger Mortimer.|
The couple over-throw Edward II and imprison him.
|1327||King Edward II abdicates, January 25, murdered 8 months later.|
His 15 year-old son accedes as King Edward III, Feb. 1.
|1327||Aztecs, after defeating the Toltecs in 1325, establish Mexico City.|
|1330||King Edward III takes control, executes Roger Mortimer and exiles|
his own mother, Isabella.
|1332||England's Parliament divides into two houses.|
|1333||King Edward III & Edward Baliol, defeat David II of Scotland|
and drive him into exile.
|1337||The 100 Years War; so bad that it lasted 117 years.|
|1340||England wins naval battle of Sluys, gains contol of English Channel.|
|1347||The Plague: Pandemic in Europe; in India (1332);|
in Mongolia (1320.) Millions die.
|1347||English victories, at Crecy, 1346, and Calais, 1347, establishes|
military supremacy on land.
|1348||Black Death ravages Europe 1948-50, by as much as 50%.|
|~1350||Manner of Holding Parliament: the first formal procedure.|
|~1350||The Iroquois Confederacy. (Native American League of Nations)|
established at Onondaga, NY. First true democracy.
|1352||Treason, defined by statute for the first time.|
|1355||England invades France, led by King Edward III's son;|
Edward, the Black Prince.
|1359||Edward, the Black Prince, encircles Paris, the French surrender.|
|1360||The Treaty of Bretigny, cedes huge areas of France to England.|
|1362||English replaces French as the national language of England.|
|1364||Aztecs build their capital at Tenochtitlan, Mexico.|
|1369||John of Gaunt, another of the King Edward III's sons, invades France.|
|1376||Edward, the Black Prince dies; Edward III goes into morning.|
|1377||King Edward III, dies; June 21, after 50 year reign.|
Succeeded by 10 year-old Richard II, son of Edward, the Black Prince.
|1397||King Richard II arrests and exiles Henry Bolingbroke.|
|1399||Henry Bolingbroke returns; Parliament names him king, Henry IV.|
King Richard II is deposed by Bolingbroke, imprisoned, and
then murdered in prison; starts Wars of the Roses.
John of Gaunt dies.
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