Quill and Pen A Chronology of History

Events Which Influenced and Shaped the United States

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1700 - 1799: Coming of age.
1701William Penn issues Charter of Privileges, for Pennsylvania.
1701King William on the "French Question." Address to Parliament.
1701Antoine de la Mothe, sieur de Cadillac establishes new trading post; calls it "Ponchartrain" on de Troit.
1701Elihu Yale donates 800 Pounds to the third college in the colonies
1701Charter of Delaware granted October 28.
1702East Jersey and West Jersey unite to form royal province of New Jersey.
1702Queen Anne begins reign; dies 1714. Annapolis is named for her.
1704Robert Beverley comments on Bacon's Rebellion.
1704John Locke dies. English philosopher, teacher, physician and scholar.
1704First organ built in the colonies, in Philadelphia.
1705Money and Trade Considered; A Proposal for Supplying the Nation with Money.
1707Scotland and England join to become Great Britain.
1708Damaris Cudworth Masham dies, daughter of Ralph Cudworth and friend of
John Locke, she was herself a philosopher as well as an early feminist.
1709First Copyright Act, in Britain.
1709Berkeley writes An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision.
1710Berkeley publishes A Treatise concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge.
1711War with Tuscarora Indians in Carolinas, they head north.
1712North Carolina gets own governor, separates from South Carolina.
1712Jean Jacques Rousseau, French philosopher, natural rights theorist and literary figure; dies 1778.
1713Treaty of Utrecht; French Acadians (Cajuns) driven from Nova Scotia to Louisiana.
1713Common Law of England. The History of the Common Law of England by Matthew Hale.
1713Queen Anne's War ends. Began in 1702.
1713Berkeley publishes Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, a more popular version of the philosophy of the Principles
1714Shawnee establish themselves in western Ohio, driven there from Maryland.
1715North Carolina Biennial Act passed in meeting at New River.
1715Tuscarora Indians join League of Five Nations, making it Six Nations.
1716Gottfreid Wilhelm Leibniz dies. German philosopher, courtier, diplomat, lawyer, and librarian.
1716First theater in the colonies is at Williamsburg.
1717Mother Goose appears in print, in Boston.
1718New Orleans founded by Le Page du Pratz, for Bienville.
1720First settlements in Vermont.
1721Montesquieu, French philosopher, jurist, and opponent of slavery. Publishes his Persian Letters.
1721Dr. Zabdiel Boylston imports smallpox vaccine, in Boston.
1723Benjamin Franklin leaves Boston for Philadelphia.
1727First British fort on Great Lakes is Fort Oswego, NY.
1728Vitus J. Bering, a Dane, explores strait which now bears his name.
1728First American steel made in Hartford, CT.
1729Jonathan Swift proposes extreme measures to make poor children useful in Ireland.
1732Charter of Georgia granted June 9.
1732Benjamin Franklin begins to publish Poor Richard's Almanac.
1732Hat Act forbade manufacture in colonies of hats made with local fur.
1732First stagecoach route connects Burlington to Perth Amboy, NJ
1733Sugar Act, aka Molasses Act, a revenue enhancement scheme for Britain.
1733John Kay invents fly shuttle. First improvement in looms since 13th century.
1733Georgia becomes 13th colony; founded by James Oglethorpe.
1733Henry St. John Bolingbroke: Letters of 1733-34 "Dissertation Upon Parties."
1734The Trial of John Peter Zenger in landmark freedom of the press case.
1735The Defense of John Peter Zenger in landmark freedom of the press case.
1735Henry St. John Bolingbroke: "Letters on the Study and Use of History."
1736Franklin begins Fire Department in Philadelphia.
1737North Carolina Biennial Act: The king responds after 22 years.
1738The Great Awakening in full swing reshaping religious policies everywhere.
1738British traders begin working shores of Lake Erie, compete with French.
1738Henry St. John Bolingbroke: "The Idea of a Patroit King," Dec. 1, 1738.
1740English Parliament allows naturalization of colonists after 7 years.
1740Invention of the Franklin stove, his most famous invention.
1740Philadelphia is largest city in America. Population 13,000.
1740War of Jenkin's Ear is fought in Cartagena (present-day Colombia.)
1741Vitus Bering claims Alaska for his (now) homeland Russia.
1742The first performance of Handel's Messiah oratorio in Dublin on April 13.
1743American Philosophical Society founded by Benjamin Franklin.
1743King George's War begins. France joins war effort against England.
1746College of New Jersey founded; now called Princeton University.
1747New York State Bar Association is first on this continent.
1748Montesquieu, publishes The Spirit of the Laws which influenced the writing of many constitutions including the United States.
1748Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep appears in New England Primer.
1748Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle ends King George's War.
1749England recognizes slavery and plantation system in the south.
1749George Washington becomes land surveyor at age 17, for an Ohio company.
1749Halifax, Nova Scotia founded.
1749Catherine Trotter Cockburne dies, playwright and defender of Locke.
Revolution: 1750 - 1799
1750Johan Sebastian Bach dies: German composer, chief representative of the German late Baroque period whose many works include The Well Tempered Clavier, The Art of the Fuge.
1750Cumberland Gap discovered, named by Thomas Walker. Westward movement begins.
1750Galissoniere publishes memoir on the French Colonies in North America.
1750First American coal mine opens in Virginia.
1750Iron Act encourages colonial pig iron, forbids colonial steel tools.
1751Liberty Bell ordered from England. 50th anniversary Charter of Privs.
1752Benjamin Franklin "flies a kite." A shocking experience! Invents lightning rod.
1752First general hospital opens in Philadelphia.
1752George Rogers Clark is born Nov. 19 in Albemarle County, Virginia.
1753George Washington explores western PA; delivers ultimatum to French.
1753Of Party Divisions; William Livingston - in the Independent Reflector.
1754Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan of Union remarks on Iroquoian League.
1754French and Indian War begins; ends formally in 1763 in Treaty of Paris.
1754King's College, now Columbia University, founded.
1754Major Washington loses battle of Fort Necessity.
1755Baron de Montesquieu dies. French philosopher, jurist, influenced constitution.
1755General Edward Braddock's defeat at Pittsburgh; Washington makes Lt. Colonel.
1757Franklin goes to London on 17 year mission for the colonies.
1757Domenico Scarlatti dies, Italian composer of operas and religious works, and one of the most important figures in the development of classical harmony.
1759George Washington weds Martha Custis, honeymoons at "The White House."
1759General James Wolfe vs. Gen. Marquis de Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham; both die.
1760Final subjugation of Canada by England leads to Dominion of Canada in 1767.
1760George III becomes King of England. Colonial population 1.6 million
1761Governor Glen of Louisiana gives a report on the role of the Indians along the Mississippi.
1761Writs of Assistance case tried in Boston.
1762Benjamin Franklin re-designs the harmonica, makes it a musical instrument.
1762Spain acquires Louisiana from France.
1763Pontiac begins siege of Detroit, now a British fort; incites other wars.
1763French and Indian War ends with Treaty of Paris signed Sept 3, which establishes borders of United States.
1763Road to Independence, a chronology of events of the next 13 years.
1763Patrick Henry delivers his famous "Parsons" speech.
1763Vigilantes known as Paxton Boys massacre peaceful Conestoga village.
1764Mozart writes his first symphony, at age eight.
1764Saint Louis founded.
1764Sugar and Molasses Act modified to produce revenue, in concert with Revenue Act.
1764Revenue Act. Taxation without representation introduced in Boston
1764Committee of Correspondence formed in Boston
1765The Stamp Act: "An act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, and other duties, in the British colonies."
1765Stamp Act response of the colonial Congress meeting in Albany, NY.
1765Quartering Act requires housing British troops in private homes.
1766William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, rises in parliament to denounce the
Stamp Act. It is soon repealed but replaced with the Declaratory Act.
1766Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon draw the line at MD & PA border.
1767Dominion of Canada formed from the union of British North American colonies.
1767Townshend Duties create Customs Office.
1768British troops begin occupation of Boston.
1769Daniel Boone crosses Appalachians, keeps heading west into Kentucky.
1769Virginia Non-importation Resolution: In protest of taxation by England.
1769Pontiac murdered by another Indian, near St. Louis.
1769Napoleon Bonaparte is born, August 15, on the island of Corsica.
1770Francisco de Ortega names discovery on west coast for his patron saint.
1770Boston Massacre. As reported in the Boston Gazette and Country Journal.
1770Englishman Capt. James Cook becomes first European to explore Australia.
1770Townshend Acts repealed, except for that on tea.
1771Battle of Alamance: the "Regulators" are defeated in North Carolina.
1772Samuel Adams at Boston Town Hall Meeting publishes list of rights.
1772John Sevier organizes independent republic of Watauga in Tennessee.
1773Tea Act enacted by Parliament.
1773Boston Tea Party. 342 chests of tea go into the drink December 16.
1774John Hancock speaks to the people of Boston about the "Boston Massacre" of 1770.
1774Quartering Act of 1774: Forcing colonist to provide quarters for British troops.
1774Intolerable Acts includes the Coercive Acts.
1774Englishman Capt. James Cook visits Easter Island and the Marquesas.
1774British close the port of Boston in retaliation for tea party.
1774The Suffolk Resolves in Massachusetts expresses bitterness toward England and demands action from colonial congress.
1774Virginia Conventions begin. Lead to First Continental Congress.
1774Prayer in Congress. The first prayer in congress. By Jacob Duche.
1774First Continental Congress convenes, in Philadelphia, Sept 5.
1774Galloway of PA presents a Plan for a Union for Great Britain and the colonies.
1774Declaration and Rights, resolves of First Continental Congress Oct 14.
1774Report to the colonies: Livingston of NJ on actions of First Continental Congress.
1774The Olive Branch Petition to the king from John Adams as a peaceful solution to grievances; Oct 26.
1774The Quebec Act nullifies all colonial rights west of Ohio River.
1774A Plea For Religious Freedom before the Massachusetts Legislature.
1775Of the 3,500 physicians in the colonies, only 400 are MD by degree.
1775Patrick Henry declares "Give me liberty or give me death!" March 23.
1775 American Revolution begins with battles at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts.
1775Paul Revere's account of his "midnight ride."
1775Second Continental Congress convenes, in Philadelphia, May 10.
1775Fort Ticonderoga taken by Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain militia, May 10.
1775Charlotte Town Resolves, adopted at meeting of May 31.
1775Washington accepts promotion to general & commander-in-chief June 16.
1775Battle of Bunker Hill. Lt. Waller's account. General Sir John Burgoyne brags to Lord Stanley over
outcome of battle fought on nearby Breed's Hill on June 17.
1775Declaration on Taking Up of Arms issued by Continental Congress, July 6.
1775Objections to Taxation by Great Britain's parliament: Soame Jenyns.
1775Postal system created. Benjamin Franklin is first Director.
1775King George III proclaimed the American colonies in a state of open rebellion: August 22nd.
1775Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, declares Martial Law, November 7th.
1775Great Bridge: Virginians defeat British, December.
1776Moore's Creek Bridge: North Carolinians defeat British, February.
1776Thomas Paine publishes "Common Sense."
1776David Hume dies, Scottish philosopher, historian and economist.
Inspired Alexander Hamilton's concepts of economics.
1776South Carolina Constitution adopted March 26.
1776Virginia Declaration of Rights on June 12; written by George Mason.
1776Virginia State Constitution adopted June 29, will be model for all states.
1776New Jersey Constitution adopted July 2.
1776Road to Independence, a chronology of events leading to the
Declaration of Independence, July 4, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, with John Adams.
The signers and their fates.
1776New Hampshire Constitution adopted July 5.
1776Second Continental Congress, on September 9, makes the term "United States" official, replacing "United Colonies."
1776Nathan Hale regrets having "but one life to lose", September 22.
1776Patrick Henry elected governor of new Commonwealth of Virginia.
1776Washington at Trenton: Captures 916 Hessian (German) prisoners.
1777New York Constitution adopted April 20.
1777Shawnee Indian chief Cornstalk, and others killed. Leads to years of warfare in Ohio.
1777Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, is made a major-general in the American Continental Army; July 31.
1777Battle of Bennington Vermont. The Green Mountain Boys doing what came naturally.
1777General Gates defeats General Burgoyne (Hessian account) at Saratoga, NY.
Burgoyne writes a note to his nieces describing his feelings.
1777General Washington has close call at Brandywine: Captain Ferguson's account.
1777Congress adopts the American flag with thirteen stars and stripes.
1777Battle of Oriskany; Rome, New York, the site of Fort Stanwix.
1777Washington's Continental Army winters at Valley Forge. Dr. Waldo's account.
1778Francois-Marie Voltaire dies, French philosopher, popularized Newtonian physics, critic of Leibniz.
1778Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French philosopher and writer, dies.
1778France declares war on England, becomes ally of America.
1778Englishman Capt. James Cook explores west coast of North America and Sandwich Islands, then murdered in Hawaii.
1779British surrender to George Rogers Clark, Feb 25, at Vincennes, Indiana.
1779John Paul Jones, in Bon Homme Richard, defeats Pearson, in Serapis.
1780Death of John Logan, Cayuga Indian Chief. Who will mourn for Logan?
1780Benedict Arnold attempts to sell West Point to the British.
1780King George III laments the loss of America.
1781Articles of Confederation go into effect; were drafted in 1777.
1781Los Angeles founded by Spanish settlers, Sept. 4.
1781Cornwallis to Sir Henry Clinton; notice of his surrender to Washington.
Surrender letters between Gen. Washington and Gen. Cornwallis of October 17-18.
1782Ninety-six Moravian Christian Indians massacred at Gnaddenhutton, OH.
1783Declarations for Suspension of Arms and Cessation of Hostilities, January 20. Agreement signed by John Adams and Ben Franklin for the United States.
1783First daily newspaper is Pennsylvania Evening Post.
1783The Paris Peace Treaty officially ending the War of Revolution signed September 3.
1784Benjamin Franklin invents bifocals.
1785Land Ordinance of 1785 for disposing of lands ceded by states to the federal government.
1785Treaty With the Cherokee Articles concluded at Hopewell, on the Keowee.
1786Shays's Rebellion in Massachusetts forcibly closes court systems.
1786Annapolis Convention concludes September 14, suggests Philadelphia convention.
1787Shay's Rebellion: Gens. Shepard's and Lincoln's letters to Gov. Bowdoin of Massachusetts.
1787Northwest Ordinance adopted July 13 by Continental Congress.
1787Constitutional Convention opens May 25; concludes business Sept 17.
1787Delegates of the Continental Congress witness demonstration (August 22nd) of inventor John Fitch's steamboat on the Delaware River.
1787United States Constitution framed, sent to Congress Sept. 17; then to states.
1787Federalist Papers begin publication in newspapers.
1788New Hampshire is 9th state to ratify Constitution. United States is now a nation.
1788First settlement in Ohio named Marietta, for Marie Antoinette.
1789Mackenzie reaches Arctic Ocean via Mackenzie River in West Canada.
1789George Washington takes oath on April 30 as 1st President with John Adams as first VP. Washington's 1st Inaugural Speech.
1789Proposed Amendments to the new Constitution. James Madison rises in congress to reluctantly suggests changes.
1789Patrick Henry leads fight for ratification of Bill of Rights.
1789French Revolution begins. Bastille falls July 14, releasing the seven prisoners inside.
Declaration of Rights Aug 26th.
1789Alexander Hamilton is appointed the first U.S. secretary of the Treasury, Sept. 11.
1789Thanksgiving Proclamation signed by first President George Washington.
1789Mutiny on the H.M.S. Bounty; survivors establish Pitcairn Island colony.
1790 The Benjamin Franklin Reading Room. Died April 17.
1790First national census finds 3,929,214 persons eligible to be counted.
1790John Jay is Chief Justice as Supreme Court meets for the first time.
1790Equality of the Sexes; Judith Sargent Murray - pen name, Constantia.
1791Federal capital to be established in swamp lands on the Potomac.
1791Vermont becomes 14th state: The first admitted after the original 13 formed the United States.
1791First ten Amendments are Bill of Rights go into effect.
1791Mozart dies while writing Requiem (Mass for the Dead). It was not finished.
1791Northwest Territory Governor Arthur St. Clair soundly defeated by Indians near Ft. Wayne.
1792Congress names the Dollar as our unit of currency; proposer: Jefferson.
1792Post Office established by Congress as a separate entity.
1792Thomas Paine publishes Rights of Man in England.
1792New York Stock Exchange organized.
1792Political parties formed; Republicans (which became Democrats) & the Federalists.
1793George Washington takes oath on March 4 for second term with John Adams as Vice President. Washington's 2nd Inaugural Speech.
1793Cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney.
1793The Louvre opens to public. First major public art museum in Europe.
1793General "Mad Anthony" Wayne begins campaign against Indians in SW Ohio.
1793Fugitive Slave Law amended requiring that they be returned to their owners.
1793John Hancock dies October 8, but not his magnificent signature.
1793French Revolution continues as Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are beheaded.
1793Neutrality Act, President declares U. S. position on war between England and France.
1793Mackenzie reaches Pacific via Fraser River in western Canada.
1794Battle of Fallen Timbers, near Toledo, OH. General Wayne v. Indians.
1794Patrick Henry retires to his Red Hill estate near Appomattox, Virginia.
1794Jay Treaty requires withdrawal of British troops from U.S.A.
1794Whiskey Rebellion over excise tax in western Pennsylvania.
179511th Amendment specifies some limits of Federal Judicial power.
1795Pinckney's Treaty with Spain opens navigation on Mississippi River.
1795Treaty of Greenville, OH opens up much of Ohio to settlement by whites.
1795Washington poses for Stuart's portrait, which is now on our dollar bill.
1796Patrick Henry elected to sixth term as governor but refuses office.
1796U. S. agrees to blackmail from Algiers to stop piracy. Tripoli, November 4.
1796Paine writes letter to Washington, explaining that he (Paine) really won America's independence and that Washington is an incompetent, a glory hound, and a crook.
1796Washington retires, but not because of Thomas Paine. Gives Farewell Address.
1796John Adams President, Tom Jefferson Vice President, 71-68 vote margin.
1796E Pluribus Unum: "Out of Many, One"; added to American coins.
1797John Adams takes oath on March 4 as 2nd President with Thomas Jefferson as Vice President. John Adams Inaugural Address.
1797XYZ Affair, so named after three anonymous French trouble makers.
1797Napoleon Bonaparte wins war and gains Austria for France.
1797U.S.S. Constitution is launched and christened by Captain James Sever.
1797Death of Mary Wollstonecraft, critic of Rousseau, defender of women's rights.
1798Alien and Sedition Acts. Soon repealed. [John Adams must've been asleep at the switch.]
1798Department of the Navy established - Navy already 4 years old.
1798Washington comes out of retirement to be Commander In Chief of Army. Insist that Alexander Hamilton is named 2nd in command.
1798Napoleon wins Battle of the Pyramids but loses war with British navy.
1798The Kentucky Resolution written by Jefferson, declares the alien and sedition laws unconstitutional, and he was right!
1798The Virginia Resolutions, written by James Madison, declares the alien and sedition laws unconstitutional, and he was right!
1799French Revolution ends. Napoleon becomes ruler of France.
1799Patrick Henry dies June 6.
1799George Washington dies of quinsy at Mt. Vernon December 14.
1799Kentucky's General Assembly passes a second Kentucky Resolution in protest of the alien and sedition laws.

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